Definition of bone cancer is cancer that occurs in the bone. Bone cancer can occur in any bone in the body, such as cancer of the spine, etc., but most often affects the arm and leg bones. There are several types of bone cancer. Some types of bone cancer occurs primarily in children, while others affect mostly adults.
Symptoms of Bone Cancer
Characteristic feature of bone cancer or bone cancer symptoms include:
- Bone pain.
- Swelling and pain near the affected area.
- Weight loss is not desired.
Types of Bone Cancer
Bone cancer is divided into separate types based on the type of cell where the cancer started. The most common type of bone cancer include:
- Osteosarcoma. Osteosarcoma begins on bone cells. Osteosarcoma occurs most often in children and young adults.
- Chondrosarcoma. Chondrosarcoma begins in the cartilage cells are normally found in the bone ends. Chondrosarcoma most commonly affects older adults.
- Ewing's Sarcoma. It is not clear where ewing sarcoma begins. Ewing's sarcoma is believed that to begin in nerve tissue in the bone. Ewing's sarcoma occurs most often in children and young adults.
Nursing Interventions for Bone Cancer
1). Pain management
Psychological pain management techniques (deep breath relaxation techniques, visualization, and guided imagery) and pharmacological (providing analgesic).
2). Teach effective coping mechanisms
Motivation clients and families to express their feelings, and give moral support and encourage families to consult a psychologist or clergy.
3). Provide adequate nutrition
Decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting often occur as a side effect of chemotherapy and radiation, so it should be given adequate nutrition. Antiemetic and relaxation techniques can reduce gastrointestinal reactions. Parenteral nutrition can be carried out in accordance with the indications of the doctor.
4). Health education
Patients and families are given health education on the likelihood of complications, treatment programs, and wound care techniques at home (Smeltzer. 2001: 2350).
5) If necessary; traction, Traction Treatment Principles
- Provide comfort measures (eg frequently change position, back massage) and therapeutic activity.
- Give the drug as an indication of examples; analgesic muscle relaxant.
- Give local heating as indicated.
- Give strength in early bandage / replacement in accordance with the indications, use aseptic technique correctly.
- Keep linen remains dry, free of wrinkles.
- Encourage the client to use loose cotton clothing.
- Encourage the client to use stress management, for example: guided imagery, deep breathing.
- Assess the degree of immobilization produced.
- Identification signs or symptoms that require medical evaluation, eg edema, erythema.