Nursing Care Plan for Osteomyelitis : Nursing Diagnosis for Osteomyelitis and Nursing Interventions for Osteomyelitis
Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone. It can be caused by a variety of microbial agents (most common in staphylococcus aureus) and situations, including:
- An open injury to the bone, such as an open fracture with the bone ends piercing the skin.
- An infection from elsewhere in the body, such as pneumonia or a urinary tract infection that has spread to the bone through the blood (bacteremia, sepsis).
- A minor trauma, which can lead to a blood clot around the bone and then a secondary infection from seeding of bacteria.
- Bacteria in the bloodstream bacteremia (poor dentition), which is deposited in a focal (localized) area of the bone. This bacterial site in the bone then grows, resulting in destruction of the bone. However, new bone often forms around the site.
- A chronic open wound or soft tissue infection can eventually extend down to the bone surface, leading to a secondary bone infection.
Symptoms of osteomyelitis
The symptoms of osteomyelitis can include:
- Pain and/or tenderness in the infected area
- Swelling and warmth in the infected area
- Nausea, secondarily from being ill with infection
- General discomfort, uneasiness, or ill feeling
- Drainage of pus through the skin
Additional symptoms that may be associated with this disease include:
- Excessive sweating
- Lower back pain (if the spine is involved)
- Swelling of the ankles, feet, and legs
- Changes in gait (walking pattern that is a painful, yielding a limp)
Nursing Diagnosis for Osteomyelitis
- Acute pain related to inflammation and swelling
- Impaired Physical Mobility related to pain and limitation of the load weight
- Risk for Infection
Targets to be achieved:
- Pain is reduced
- Improvement of physical mobility within the limits of therapeutic
- Infection control
Nursing interventions for Osteomyelitis
1. Immobilization of the affected area with a splint to reduce pain and muscle spasms.
2. Joints above and below the affected area should be made so that still can be moved according to the range yet gently. The wound itself is sometimes very painful and must be handled carefully and slowly.
3. Elevate the affected area to reduce swelling and discomfort.
4. Monitor the affected extremity neurovascular status.
5. Do pain management techniques such as massage, distraction, relaxation, hypnosis to reduce pain perception and collaboration with medical for providing analgesic.
6. Protect your bones by means of immobilization and avoid stress on the bone because bones become weak due to the infection process.
Reference : http://my.clevelandclinic.org/disorders/osteomyelitis/hic_osteomyelitis.aspx