Mastoiditis is the result of an infection that extends to the air cells of the skull behind the ear.
Causes of Mastoiditis
- Haemophilus influenzae.
- Streptococcus pneumoniae.
- Streptococcus pyogenes.
- Moraxella catarrhalis.
- Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection (MRSA).
- Staphylococcus aureus, including MRSA.
- Infection is often polymicrobial.
- Gram-negative organisms such as Escherichia coli, Proteus, or Pseudomonas.
- Anaerobic bacteria: Peptostreptococcus species, anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli (ie, pigmented Prevotella, Porphyromonas, and Bacteroides species) and Fusobacterium species.
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis, nontuberculous mycobacteria, and Mycobacterium bovis are rare causes.
Symptoms of Mastoiditis
- Ear pain or discomfort
- Drainage from the ear
- Fever, may be high or suddenly increase
- Redness of the ear or behind the ear
- Hearing loss
- Swelling behind ear, may cause ear to stick out
Nursing Diagnosis for Mastoiditis
- Acute pain related to inflammation process.
- Disturbed Sensory perception related to obstruction, infection of the middle ear or auditory nerve damage.
- Anxiety related to the inability to communicate.
- Risk for injury related to vertigo and a decrease in body balance