Nursing Care Plan for Anemia
Anemia (uh-NEE-me-uh) is a condition in which your blood has a lower than normal number of red blood cells.
Anemia also can occur if your red blood cells don't contain enough hemoglobin (HEE-muh-glow-bin). Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein that gives blood its red color. This protein helps red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body.
If you have anemia, your body doesn't get enough oxygen-rich blood. As a result, you may feel tired and have other symptoms. Severe or long-lasting anemia can damage the heart, brain, and other organs of the body. Very severe anemia may even cause death.
Blood is made up of various parts, including red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets (PLATE-lets), and plasma (the fluid portion of blood).
Red blood cells are disc-shaped and look like doughnuts without holes in the center. They carry oxygen and remove carbon dioxide (a waste product) from your body. These cells are made in the bone marrow—a sponge-like tissue inside the bones.
White blood cells and platelets (PLATE-lets) also are made in the bone marrow. White blood cells help fight infection. Platelets stick together to seal small cuts or breaks on the blood vessel walls and stop bleeding. With some types of anemia, you may have low numbers of all three types of blood cells.
Anemia has three main causes: blood loss, lack of red blood cell production, or high rates of red blood cell destruction. These causes may be due to many diseases, conditions, or other factors.
Many types of anemia can be mild, short term, and easily treated. You can even prevent some types with a healthy diet. Other types can be treated with dietary supplements.
However, certain types of anemia may be severe, long lasting, and life threatening if not diagnosed and treated.
If you have signs and symptoms of anemia, see your doctor to find out whether you have the condition. Treatment will depend on the cause and severity of the anemia.
Source : http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/anemia/anemia_whatis.html
Nursing Care Plan for Anemia
Nursing Assessment for Anemia
Assessment of patients with anemia (Doenges, 1999) include :
- Activity / rest
fatigue, weakness, general malaise. Lost productivity: a reduction in enthusiasm for work. Low exercise tolerance. The need for sleep and rest more.
tachycardia / takipnae; dyspnea during work or rest. Lethargy, withdrawn, apathetic, lethargic, and less interested in its surroundings. Muscle weakness, and decreased strength. Ataxia, the body is not upright. Shoulders down, slumped posture, slow, and other signs that indicate fatigue.
A history of chronic blood loss, such as chronic gastrointestinal bleeding, heavy menstruation, angina, CHF (due to excessive cardiac work). History of chronic infective endocarditis. Palpitations (tachycardia compensation).
Blood pressure: systolic to diastolic steady improvement, and widening pulse pressure, postural hypotension. Dysrhythmias: ECG abnormality, ST segment depression and T wave leveling or depression; tachycardia. The sound of the heart: systolic murmur. Extremity (color): pale skin and mucous membranes (conjunctiva, mouth, pharynx, lips) and the base of the nail. (Note: in black patients, white may appear to be grayish). Leather like waxy, pale or bright lemon yellow. Sclera: blue or pearly white. Slow capillary filling (decreased blood flow to the capillary and vasoconstriction compensation) nails: easily broken, shaped like a spoon (koilonikia). Hair: dry, easily breaking, thinning, gray hair grow prematurely.
- Integrity ego
Religious beliefs / cultural influence treatment options, such as refusal of blood transfusions.
A history of pyelonephritis, kidney failure. Flatulen, malabsorption syndrome. Hematemesis, stool with fresh blood, melena. Diarrhea or constipation. Decrease in urine output.
- Food / fluid
Decreased dietary input. Painful mouth or tongue, difficulty swallowing (pharyngeal ulcers). Nausea / vomiting, dyspepsia, anorexia. The presence of weight loss. Never satisfied to chew or sensitive to ice, dirt, corn flour, paint, clay, and so forth.
Tongue looks red meat / subtle deficiency of folic acid and vitamin B12. Dry mucous membranes, pale. Skin turgor: ugly, dry, looks shriveled / lost elasticity. Stomatitis and glositis (deficiency status). Lips: selitis, such as inflammatory lips with the corner of his mouth cracked.
Headache, throbbing, vertigo, tinnitus, inability to concentrate. Insomnia, decreased vision, and shadows on the eyes. Weakness, poor balance, unsteady legs, paresthesias hands / feet; klaudikasi. The sensation of being cold.
Sensitive to stimuli, anxiety, depression tend to sleep, apathy. Mental: not able to respond, slow and shallow. Ophthalmic: hemoragis retina. Epitaksis: bleeding from the holes (aplastic). Impaired coordination, ataxia, decreased sense of vibration, and position, positive Romberg sign, paralysis.
- Pain / comfort
Symptoms: abdominal pain, headache
A history of tuberculosis, lung abscess. Short of breath at rest and activity.
Tachypnoea, orthopnea, and dyspnea.
A history of work exposure to chemicals,. History of exposure to radiation, either to treatment or accident. History of cancer, cancer therapy. Not tolerant of cold and heat. Previous blood transfusion. Impaired vision, poor wound healing, frequent infections.
A low fever, chills, night sweats, general lymphadenopathy. Ptekie and ekimosis(aplastic).
Changes in menstrual flow, such as menorrhagia or amenorrhea. Lost libido (male and female). Imppoten.
Pale vaginal walls.